Employment and Unemployment:
Business Cycle:
Change in Supply for Foreign Currency
Inflation:
Tools of Fiscal Policy (Business Taxes)
Congress and the President
Money Supply vs. Money Stock
Tools of Fiscal Policy (Personal Income Taxes)
Fiscal Policy:
Tool of Monetary Policy (Discount Rate/Primary Credit Rate)
The Federal Reserve (The FED)
Tool of Monetary Policy (Reserve Requirement)
Monetary Policy:
Tool of Fiscal Policy (Government Spending)
Crowding Out and Crowding In Effects
Demand of Loanable Funds
Supply of Loanable Funds
Loanable Funds Market:
Money Demand (Shifts)
Money Market Graph (x and y axes)
Change in the Money Supply and Change in ASAD
Money Supply (Shifts)
Money Market:
Mixture of Fiscal and Monetary Policies
Demand Side Shifts
Supply Side Shifts
Stabilization Policies (Fiscal and Monetary Policies):
Deficits and Growth Policies
Financial Assets
Rule of 72
Financial Terminology:
Phillips Curve (Short Run)
Demand Pull vs. Supply Push Inflation
Phillips Curve (History)
Phillips Curve:
Determinants of Economic Growth
Growth Policies:
Exchange Rates (Why do they Fluctuate?)
Exchange Rate Side-by-Side Graphs
Currency Exchange Market:
Economic Growth
Present Value
Future Value
Tool of Monetary Policy (Open-Market Operations)
Loanable Funds Market Graph (x and y axes)
Quantity Theory of Money
Phillips Curve (Shifts in the Short Run)
Phillips Curve (Long Run)
Change in Demand for Foreign Currency
Balance of Trade (Current Account)
Financial Account (Capital Account)
Balance of Payments:
How the Two Accounts Balance
Circular Flow (Exports and Imports)
Circular Flow (Withdrawals)
Circular Flow (Government)
Circular Flow (Injections)
Circular Flow:
Circular Flow (Simple)
Circular Flow (Financial)
Unemployment (Different Types)
Figuring the Unemployment Rate
Business Cycle and PPF
Business Cycle
Price Indexes (CPI)
Inflation:  Who Benefits? Who is Hurt?
Real GDP
Full Employment
Demand Pull and Cost Push Inflation
Calculating Inflation Using the CPI
What is NOT included in Real GDP Data
Business Cycle and a Recession
Unemployment (U1, U2, U3, U4, U5, U6)
Nominal vs. Real
Real GDP Deflator Formula
Aggregate Supply:
Recessionary (Output) and Inflationary Gaps
Components of Aggregate Demand
Aggregate Demand:
Aggregate Supply Ranges
Aggregate Supply (Short-run Shifts)
Aggregate Supply (Long-run Shifts)
ASAD (Y axis and X axis)
Variables that Change the Components of AD, Part I
Slope of Aggregate Demand (Direct)
Variables that Change the Components of AD, Part II
Reffonomics Videos MACROeconomics Terms
in 3 minutes or less
Steven M. Reff
Economics Lecturer
University of Arizona
(2007 - 2016)
The 2015 University of Arizona
Five-Star Faculty Award
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Production-Possibilities Curve/Frontier
PPF, Part I  (Constant Cost vs. Increasing Cost PPF)
PPF, Part II  (Points on the PPF Graph)
PPF, Part III (Absolute and Comparative Advantage)
PPF, Part IV  (Good Terms of Trade and Consumption Possibilities)
PPF, Part V  (Bad Terms of Trade and Consumption Possibilities)
PPF, Part VI  (Output vs. Input Question)
Basic Concepts:
Introduction to Economics
Trade Offs vs. Opportunity Cost
Resources
Economic Systems
Quantity Supplied vs. Supply
Simultaneous Shifts in Supply and Demand
Determinants of Demand, Part I
Determinants of Supply
Supply and Demand:
Qd vs. Demand
Determinants of Demand, Part II
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videos below will be updated through
February 2019.
PPF, Part VII  (Shifts of the PPF)
From January - February 2019 this page is being revamped so that
all of the videos are shown onYouTube and all of the multiple choice
questions can be shown on every device (computers, tablets, cell
phones).
Outstanding Educator, The University of Arizona College of Education Alumni Council (1995)
Have taught 12,715 students over the past 10 years (2016)
Eller College Dean's Award for Undergraduate Teaching Excellence (2013 - 2014)
Eller College Dean's Award for Undergraduate Teaching Excellence (2012 - 2013)
Eller College Faculty Member of the Year (Large Class) (2010)
Eller College Dean's Award for Undergraduate Teaching Excellence (2007 - 2008)
University of Arizona Alumni Association Outstanding Teacher Award (1992 - 1993)